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Proteomics analysis of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease with different Traditional Chinese Medicine syndrome types before and after percutaneous coronary intervention.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying protein molecular mechanisms of " Qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome" (QS) and " Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome" (QD), as two subtypes of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

METHODS: In this study, a total of 227 CAD patients with QS and 211 CAD patients with QD were enrolled; all participants underwent PCI. Label-free quantification proteomics were employed to analyze the changes in serum in two subtypes of CAD patients before and 6 months after PCI, aiming to elucidate the intervention mechanism of PCI in treating CAD characterized by two different TCM syndromes.

RESULTS: Biochemical analysis revealed significant changes in tumor necrosis factor-α, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood stasis clinical symptoms observation, and Gensini levels in both patient groups post-PCI; Proteomic analysis identified 79 and 95 differentially expressed proteins in the QS and QD patient groups, respectively, compared to their control groups. complement C8 alpha chain, complement factor H, apolipoprotein H, apolipoprotein B, plasminogen, carbonic anhydrase 2, and complement factor I were altered in both comparison groups. Furthermore, enrichment analysis demonstrated that cell adhesion and connectivity-related processes underwent changes in QS patients post-PCI, whereas lipid metabolism-related pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway and extracellular matrix receptor interaction, underwent changes in the QD group. The protein-protein interaction network analysis further enriched 52 node proteins, including apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), complement C5, apolipoprotein A4, complement C8 alpha chain, complement C8 beta chain, complement C8 gamma chain, apolipoprotein H, apolipoprotein A-Ⅱ, albumin, complement C4-B, apolipoprotein C3, among others. The functional network of these proteins is posited to contribute to the pathophysiology of CAD characterized by TCM syndromes.

CONCLUSION: The current quantitative proteomic study has preliminarily identified biomarkers of CAD in different TCM subtypes treated with PCI, potentially laying the groundwork for understanding the protein profiles associated with the treatment of various TCM subtypes of CAD.

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