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Differential Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Based on Race and Immigration Status.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally. In this context, identifying risk factors for severe disease is important. We examined how race/ethnicity and immigration status influence IBD manifestations, treatments, and outcomes in a diverse, tertiary-care safety-net hospital.

METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of all IBD inpatients and outpatients treated from 1997-2017. Using logistic regression modeling, we compared disease onset, treatment, and outcomes by race (White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian) and immigration status (US-born vs foreign-born).

RESULTS: A total of 577 patients were identified, of which 29.8% were White, 27.4% were Hispanic, 21.7% were Black, and 13.0% were Asian. Compared to Whites, Asians were more likely to be male (odds ratio [OR] 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45, 5.00), whereas Blacks were more likely to be diagnosed with Crohn's disease (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.77) and more likely to undergo IBD-related intestinal resection (OR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.40, 4.50). Compared to US-born patients, foreign-born patients were more likely to be diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.02). They were also less likely to be diagnosed before 16 years of age (OR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.41), to have undergone intestinal resections (OR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.83), to have received biologics (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.76), or to have had dermatologic manifestations (OR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.41).

CONCLUSION: IBD phenotype varies by race, although foreign-born patients of all races show evidence of later-onset and milder disease. These findings may aid in disease prognostication and clinical management and, furthermore, may provide insight into intrinsic and environmental influences on IBD pathogenesis.

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