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Prevalence of Classical Extraintestinal Manifestations among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Single Tertiary Center Experience.

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may also experience extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs), which can affect various organ systems, and their occurrence is based on disease activity.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of EIMs and their most common types among IBD patients from Saudi Arabia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included all IBD patients aged 14-80 years who visited the Gastroenterology and Hepatology clinics at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, between February 2017 and December 2022. The collected data included demographic characteristics, disease characteristics, EIMs, and treatment.

RESULTS: The study included 578 IBD patients, of which 65 (11.2%) had at least one EIM, with primary sclerosing cholangitis (46.2%) and sacroiliitis (16.9%) being the most common. Patients with ulcerative colitis were more likely to have EIMs than those with Crohn's disease (15.1% vs. 9%; P = 0.026). Patients with ileocolonic (L3) Crohn's disease reported a higher prevalence of EIMs (7.5%) than those with other disease locations ( P = 0.012), while in patients with ulcerative colitis, those with extensive colitis (E3) reported higher prevalence of EIMs (19.2%) ( P = 0.001). Patients receiving 6 MP had a significantly high prevalence of EIMs ( P = 0.014).

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations among IBD patients in Saudi Arabia is 11.2%. These findings suggest the need for clinicians to screen for EIMs and manage them early. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying EIMs for the development of more effective treatments.

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