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Exploring new avenues of health protection: plant-derived nanovesicles reshape microbial communities.

Symbiotic microbial communities are crucial for human health, and dysbiosis is associated with various diseases. Plant-derived nanovesicles (PDNVs) have a lipid bilayer structure and contain lipids, metabolites, proteins, and RNA. They offer unique advantages in regulating microbial community homeostasis and treating diseases related to dysbiosis compared to traditional drugs. On the one hand, lipids on PDNVs serve as the primary substances that mediate specific recognition and uptake by bacteria. On the other hand, due to the multifactorial nature of PDNVs, they have the potential to enhance growth and survival of beneficial bacterial while simultaneously reducing the pathogenicity of harmful bacteria. In addition, PDNVs have the capacity to modulate bacterial metabolism, thus facilitating the establishment of a harmonious microbial equilibrium and promoting stability within the microbiota. These remarkable attributes make PDNVs a promising therapeutic approach for various conditions, including periodontitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and skin infection diseases. However, challenges such as consistency, isolation methods, and storage need to be addressed before clinical application. This review aims to explore the value of PDNVs in regulating microbial community homeostasis and provide recommendations for their use as novel therapeutic agents for health protection.

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