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Factors associated with increased 30-day re-operation risk in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Knee 2024 May 19
BACKGROUND: Revision surgery following isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has often focused on mid- to long-term revisions due to re-rupture, while short-term 30-day revision is a rare, but underappreciated entity. This study aims to characterize incidence and risk factors for reoperations following isolated ACLR.

METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database (NSQIP) database from 2005 to 2017. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify elective isolated ACLR patients. Patients undergoing reoperations were analyzed using bivariate analysis against their respective perioperative variables. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for reoperations after ACLR.

RESULTS: 12,790 patients were included in the study. 37.0% of patients were female. Mean age was 32.2+/-10.7 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.8+/-6.5 kg/m2 , with 28.9% of patients with BMI > 30. The most frequently reported reason for reoperation based on CPT and ICD-9/10 codes was postoperative infection (0.5%). Overall reoperation rate was approximately 0.5%. Multivariate analysis identified operative time >1.5 h (OR 2.6 [95% CI; 1.5-4.4]), dependent functional status (OR 14.0 [1.4-141.6]), and adjunctive anesthesia (OR 2.4 [95% CI; 1.1-5.0]) as independent risk factors for reoperation. Female sex was a protective factor against reoperations (OR 0.6 [0.3-0.98]).

CONCLUSION: Primary, isolated ACLR is associated with extremely low rates of short-term reoperations. Operative time >1.5 h, dependent functional status, and adjunctive anesthesia were independent risk factors for reoperation and female sex was a protective factor against reoperation.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III. Retrospective cohort study.

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