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Engineered CAR-T cells: An immunotherapeutic approach for cancer treatment and beyond.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a type of adoptive immunotherapy that offers a promising avenue for enhancing cancer treatment since traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy have proven insufficient in completely eradicating tumors, despite the relatively positive outcomes. It has been observed that CAR-T cell therapy has shown promising results in treating the majority of hematological malignancies but also have a wide scope for other cancer types. CAR is an extra receptor on the T-cell that helps to increase and accelerate tumor destruction by efficiently activating the immune system. It is made up of three domains, the ectodomain, transmembrane, and the endodomain. The ectodomain is essential for antigen recognition and binding, whereas the co-stimulatory signal is transduced by the endodomain. To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted approval for six CAR-T cell therapies. However, despite its remarkable success, CAR-T therapy is associated with numerous adverse events and has certain limitations. This chapter focuses on the structure and function of the CAR domain, various generations of CAR, and the process of CAR-T cell development, adverse effects, and challenges in CAR-T therapy. CAR-T cell therapy also has scopes in other disease conditions which include systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis, etc.

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