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New-onset psychogenic nonepileptic seizures after intracranial neurosurgery: A meta-analysis.

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is still unclear. Although approximately 14 million people need neurosurgical care annually, there is a dearth of thorough analysis on PNES occurrence following surgery. This study seeks to estimate the proportion of newly diagnosed PNES.

METHODS: We conducted a literature search of the PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases up to December 2023. We identified studies using an observational design on the occurrence of PNES in patients who underwent intracranial surgery, and confirmed diagnosis using video-EEG. Estimates are reported as proportions using random effects models. We reported both 95 % CIs and prediction intervals (PI). We assessed the risk of bias and identified the pooled odds ratio (OR) for mutually exclusive groups. The heterogeneity was investigated using the I² statistic and significance determined using Cochran's Q-test. Post-hoc Egger's regression test, and several sensitivity analyses were performed. This study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42023488611).

RESULTS: Of the 1766 unique studies identified, 86 were selected for full-text review. Eight studies (n = 3,699) were eligible for inclusion. Studies, spanning from 1995 to 2017, primarily focused on epilepsy surgeries. The pooled proportion was 3 % (95 % CI 2 %-5 %; 95 % PI 0 %-11 %). Temporal resections indicated twofold increase of PNES comparing to either resections (OR 2.05, 95 %CI 0.81-5.19). The risk of bias assessment indicated satisfactory quality for included studies, and heterogeneity in estimates was mainly explained by publication year of studies and their rounded sample size.

CONCLUSIONS: Given the estimations, there is expected impact of intracranial procedures on functional seizures epidemiology. Further efforts need to understand the contribution of brain resections to PNES incidence.

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