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Use of perampanel oral suspension for the treatment of refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus.

INTRODUCTION: Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency associated with a significant risk of disability and death. The treatment of SE follows a step-wise approach, with limited data on ideal antiseizure medications (ASMs) for refractory and super refractory SE (RSE/SRSE). Perampanel (PER), an AMPA receptor antagonist, has shown promise in animal models but still has limited data in humans. This study tried to evaluate optimal dosage and safety of PER in RSE and SRSE patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 17 adult patients with RSE (1) or SRSE (16) treated with PER. Demographic and clinical data, including EEG patterns, ASMs administered, PER dosages, and PER plasma concentrations, were collected. For patients receiving a 24 mg PER loading dose (full dose group), the following treatment regimen was applied: 24 mg per day for 48 h following by 16 mg per day. The response to PER was assessed based on electroencephalographic (EEG) improvement from high to low epileptiform activity or from low to the absence of epileptiform activities. Safety was evaluated monitoring hepatic and renal function.

RESULTS: A response rate of 58.82 % was observed, with significantly higher responses in the full dose group (81.82 %) compared to those receiving PER doses below 24 mg (low dose group) (16.67 %) (p-value = 0.004; OR 0.044, 95 % CI 0.003 to 0.621, p = 0.021). No other clinical factors significantly influenced treatment response. Hepatic enzymes become elevated in most patients (70.59 %) but spontaneously decreased.

DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that a 24 mg PER dose administered for 48 h may be more effective in managing RSE and SRSE compared to doses below 24 mg, potentially due to pharmacokinetic factors.

CONCLUSION: More robust data on PER in RSE and SRSE, including standardized dosing procedures and plasma level monitoring are needed. PER's potential benefits should be explored further, particularly in patients with RSE and SRSE.

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