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Prediction of DNA methylation-based tumor types from histopathology in central nervous system tumors with deep learning.

Nature Medicine 2024 May 18
Precision in the diagnosis of diverse central nervous system (CNS) tumor types is crucial for optimal treatment. DNA methylation profiles, which capture the methylation status of thousands of individual CpG sites, are state-of-the-art data-driven means to enhance diagnostic accuracy but are also time consuming and not widely available. Here, to address these limitations, we developed Deep lEarning from histoPathoLOgy and methYlation (DEPLOY), a deep learning model that classifies CNS tumors to ten major categories from histopathology. DEPLOY integrates three distinct components: the first classifies CNS tumors directly from slide images ('direct model'), the second initially generates predictions for DNA methylation beta values, which are subsequently used for tumor classification ('indirect model'), and the third classifies tumor types directly from routinely available patient demographics. First, we find that DEPLOY accurately predicts beta values from histopathology images. Second, using a ten-class model trained on an internal dataset of 1,796 patients, we predict the tumor categories in three independent external test datasets including 2,156 patients, achieving an overall accuracy of 95% and balanced accuracy of 91% on samples that are predicted with high confidence. These results showcase the potential future use of DEPLOY to assist pathologists in diagnosing CNS tumors within a clinically relevant short time frame.

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