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Temporal trends in clinical features of patients with primary aldosteronism over 20 years.

Primary aldosteronism (PA) accounts for approximately 5-10% of hypertension cases. Over the past 20 years, the reported incidence of PA has increased due to widespread screening for secondary hypertension and imaging studies. We aimed to evaluate the temporal trends in the clinical characteristics and subtypes of PA. A total of 1064 patients with PA in two tertiary hospitals between 2000 and 2021 were categorized into three groups according to the year of diagnosis: 2000-2009, 2010-2015, and 2016-2021. The clinical characteristics of the patients over the three time periods were compared using a trend analysis. The age at diagnosis and sex of patients with PA did not change over 20 years. The proportion of patients with bilateral hyperaldosteronism (BHA) increased (11%, 25%, and 40%, P for trend <0.001). The proportion of hypokalemia (87%, 61%, and 40%) and plasma aldosterone concentration (36.0, 30.8, and 26.6 ng/dL) decreased (all P for trend <0.001). There was a trend toward an increased proportion of incidentally detected patients compared to clinically symptomatic patients (36%, 55%, and 61%, P for trend <0.001). The concordance rate of imaging and adrenal venous sampling results decreased (91%, 70%, and 57% P for trend <0.001). However, the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension and comorbidities did not differ. In conclusion, among patients with PA, patients with BHA and incidental detection have increased over 20 years, and more patients are likely to present with milder clinical symptoms and biochemical profiles.

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