Journal Article
Review
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

The association between tumour heterogeneity and immune evasion mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical implications.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The emergence of combination therapy, atezolizumab (anti-PDL1, immune checkpoint inhibitor) and bevacizumab (anti-VEGF) has revolutionised the management of HCC. Despite this breakthrough, the best overall response rate with first-line systemic therapy is only about 30%, owing to intra-tumoural heterogeneity, complex tumour microenvironment and the lack of predictive biomarkers. Many groups have attempted to classify HCC based on the immune microenvironment and have consistently observed better outcomes in immunologically "hot" HCC. We summarised possible mechanisms of tumour immune evasion based on the latest literature and the rationale for combination/sequential therapy to improve treatment response. Lastly, we proposed future strategies and therapies to overcome HCC immune evasion to further improve treatment outcomes of HCC.

Full text links

We have located open access text paper links.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app