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Explorative study on lower inflection point dynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Potential implications for airway management.

Resuscitation 2024 May 16
INTRODUCTION: In patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after an Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA), intrathoracic airway closure can impede ventilation, adversely affecting patient outcomes. This explorative study investigates the evolution of intrathoracic airway closure by analyzing the lower inflection point (LIP) during the inspiration phase of CPR, aiming to identify the potential thresholds for alveolar recruitment.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eleven OHCA patients undergoing CPR with endotracheal intubation and manual bag ventilation were included. Flow and pressure measurements were obtained using Sensirion SFM3200AW and Wika CPT2500 sensors attached to the endotracheal tube, connected to a Surface Go Tablet for data collection. Flow data was analyzed in Microsoft Excel, while pressure data was processed using the Wika USBsoft2500 application. Analysis focused on the inspiration phase of the first 6-8 breaths, with an additional 2 breaths recorded and analyzed at the end of CPR.

RESULTS: Across the cohort, the median tidal volume was 870.00 milliliter (mL), average flow was 31.90 standard liters per minute (slm), and average pressure was 17.21 cmH2 O. The calculated average LIP was 31.47 cmH2 O. Most cases (72.7%) exhibited a negative trajectory in LIP evolution during CPR, with 2 cases (18.2%) showing a positive trajectory and 1 case remaining inconclusive. The average LIP in the first 8 breaths was significantly higher than in the last 2 breaths (p = 0.018). No significant correlation was found between average LIP and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), compression depth, frequency, or end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 ). However, a significant negative correlation was observed between the average LIP of the last 2 breaths and CPR duration (p = 0.023).

VALIDATION: LIP calculation in low-flow ventilations using the novel mathematical method yielded values consistent with those reported in the literature.

DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: These explorative data demonstrate a predominantly negative trajectory in LIP evolution during CPR, suggesting potential challenges in maintaining airway patency. Limitations include a small sample size and sensor recording issues. Further research is warranted to explore the evolution of LIP and its implications for personalized ventilation strategies in CPR.

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