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Efficacy Analysis of Bortezomib Combined with Lenalidomide in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma with 1q21 Gain/Amp.

OBJECTIVE: 1q21 gain/Amp is one of the most common cytogenetic abnormalities. There are controversies about its effects on prognosis and may be associated with inferior outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). To explore the optimal induction treatment, we analyzed and compared the efficacy of combinations of bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (VRD) and only bortezomib-based triplet regimens without lenalidomide (only bortezomib-based) as induction therapy in patients with NDMM with 1q21 gain/Amp.

METHODS: Seventy-six NDMM patients with 1q21 gain/Amp who were admitted to our center from 2016 to 2022 were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The progression and efficacy of the patients were observed.

RESULTS: Within our study group, the overall survival rate stood at 75.0%, and the progression-free survival (PFS) rate reached 40.8% in NDMM patients with 1q21 gain/Amp. The best outcome assessment was that 17.1% achieved complete response (CR) and 44.7% achieved very good partial response (VGPR). Patients in the VRD group had a deeper response (VGPR: 63.6% vs 37.0%, P  = 0.034), lower disease progression rate (31.8% vs 70.3%, P  = 0.002), longer sustained remission (median 49.7 months vs 18.3 months, P  = 0.030), and longer PFS (median 61.9 months vs 22.9 months, P  = 0.032) than those treated with only bortezomib-based induction therapy. No significant differences were found among patients with partial response or better (86.4% vs 77.8%, P  = 0.532) or CR (27.3% vs 13.0%, P  = 0.180). Multivariate analysis showed that only bortezomib-based induction therapy ( P  = 0.003, HR 0.246, 95% CI 0.097-0.620), International Staging System stage III ( P  = 0.003, HR 3.844, 95% CI 1.588-9.308) and LMR <3.6 ( P  = 0.032, HR 0.491, 95% CI 0.257-0.940) were significantly associated with adverse PFS.

CONCLUSIONS: When compared with the sequential administration of bortezomib and lenalidomide or only bortezomib-based protocols, NDMM patients with 1q21 gain/Amp may benefit more from VRD as initial treatments.

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