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Stroke.

Lancet 2024 May 15
Stroke affects up to one in five people during their lifetime in some high-income countries, and up to almost one in two in low-income countries. Globally, it is the second leading cause of death. Clinically, the disease is characterised by sudden neurological deficits. Vascular aetiologies contribute to the most common causes of ischaemic stroke, including large artery disease, cardioembolism, and small vessel disease. Small vessel disease is also the most frequent cause of intracerebral haemorrhage, followed by macrovascular causes. For acute ischaemic stroke, multimodal CT or MRI reveal infarct core, ischaemic penumbra, and site of vascular occlusion. For intracerebral haemorrhage, neuroimaging identifies early radiological markers of haematoma expansion and probable underlying cause. For intravenous thrombolysis in ischaemic stroke, tenecteplase is now a safe and effective alternative to alteplase. In patients with strokes caused by large vessel occlusion, the indications for endovascular thrombectomy have been extended to include larger core infarcts and basilar artery occlusion, and the treatment time window has increased to up to 24 h from stroke onset. Regarding intracerebral haemorrhage, prompt delivery of bundled care consisting of immediate anticoagulation reversal, simultaneous blood pressure lowering, and prespecified stroke unit protocols can improve clinical outcomes. Guided by underlying stroke mechanisms, secondary prevention encompasses pharmacological, vascular, or endovascular interventions and lifestyle modifications.

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