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Analysis of the characteristics of anticipatory postural adjustments in older adults using smartphones: Association between cognitive and balance functions.

Gait & Posture 2024 May 15
OBJECTIVES: Using smartphones, we aimed to clarify the characteristics of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) in older adults and examine the relationship between cognitive and balance functions.

METHODS: The study participants were 10 young and 13 older adults. An accelerometer built into a smartphone was attached to the lower back (L5) of the participant, and acceleration in the mediolateral direction was measured using a one-leg stance (OLS). As APA features, we analyzed the time to the peak value in the stance direction (peak latency [PL]) and the amount of displacement to the peak value in the stance direction (peak magnitude [PM]). Additionally, the measured PL was divided by PM for each group to obtain the APA ratio (APAr). We investigated the relationship between the APAr and Mini-BESTest subitems.

RESULTS: Older adults showed delayed PL and decreased PM levels (p < 0.01). While in the Mini-BESTest sub-items, deductions were most common in the order of dual-task and single-leg standing, and most participants with low APAr scores were degraded in APA of sub-items. The correlation was observed between APAr and both TUG and dual-task cost (DTC) (r= -0.56, r= -0.67). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, the APAr value was 1.71 in the older age group.

CONCLUSIONS: Older adults showed delayed PL and decreased PM, and APAr was associated with cognitive and locomotor functions. By evaluating the APAr at the initiation of movement, it may be possible to distinguish the APA of the older adluts from the possible to the impossible of OLS movement.

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