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Beneficial effects of swimming and pomegranate juice in rats with hypertension: A possible role of serum adropin.

Nutrition Research 2024 April 20
Hypertension, characterized by persistent and uncontrolled high blood pressure, is one of the most common significant causes of mortality worldwide. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and antioxidant intake have showed beneficial effects on hypertensive conditions. Adropin and endothelin-1 (ET-1) have important vasoregulatory functions in the endothelium. However, the underlying mechanisms linking exercise- and/or antioxidant intake-mediated improvement of hypertension are not fully understood. In this study, it was hypothesized that swimming exercise and pomegranate juice (PJ) (as an antioxidant) administration might have protective effects on hypertension development and possible involvements of serum adropin and ET-1. To test the hypothesis, the rats with hypertension, induced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, were subjected to swimming exercise and received PJ for 8 weeks. Weekly systolic and diastolic pressures, serum concentrations of adropin and ET-1, and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in various tissues were measured. The obtained data show that swimming exercise leads to complete protection against hypertension within the 8-week duration, whereas the PJ administration causes an ameliorative effect. In addition, the combination of swimming exercise and PJ administration do not have additive effects in protection against hypertension. Notably, the 8-week swimming exercise restores the diminished serum adropin concentration in rats with hypertension to the control level. Serum adropin significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic pressures, depending on swimming exercise, but not PJ administration. Serum ET-1 concentration inconsistently fluctuates in response to Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, swimming exercise, and PJ intake. In addition, swimming exercise and/or PJ administration lead to a complete normalization in liver malondialdehyde concentrations of rats with hypertension, whereas these interventions cause slight or no improvements in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione in the heart, liver, and kidney. In conclusion, 8-week swimming exercise modulates hypertension, possibly by influencing adropin concentration and oxidative stress.

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