Comparative Study
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Surfactant administration methods for premature newborns: LISA vs. INSURE comparative analysis.

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is the most common respiratory disorder among premature infants. The use of surfactant has significantly reduced respiratory complications and mortality. There are two conventional methods for administering surfactant: Intubate-Surfactant-Extubate (INSURE) and Less Invasive Surfactant Administration (LISA). This study aims to compare the effects of surfactant administration using these two methods on the treatment outcomes of premature newborns.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 100 premature newborns with RDS and spontaneous breathing who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Besat Hospital in Sanandaj city in 2021. Exclusion criteria comprised congenital anomalies and the needing for intubation for resuscitation at birth. The outcomes of epmericaly trated with two methods were compared: the LISA (50 neonates) and the INSURE (50 neonates). Our interesting outcomes were needing for mechanical ventilation, duration of ventilation, pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage, severe retinopathy, CPAP duration, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Finally, we entered the data into STATA-14 statistical software and analyzed it using chi-square and t-tests.

RESULTS: In this study, 69% of the neonates were boys. The LISA group exhibited significantly lower rates of need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.003) and ventilation duration (P < 0.001) compared to the INSURE group. Conversely, there were no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05) in terms of pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage, severe retinopathy, CPAP duration, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the LISA method is a safe and non-invasive approach for surfactant administration. Notably, it resulted in a reduced need for mechanical ventilation and decreased ventilation duration compared to the INSURE method.

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