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MAFLD and glomerular hyperfiltration in subjects with normoglycemia, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional population study.

BACKGROUND: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD, 2020 diagnostic criteria) and glomerular hyperfiltration share common risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension.

AIMS: To assess the prevalence of MAFLD and its association with glomerular hyperfiltration and age-related worsening of kidney function in subjects with normoglycemia, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

METHODS: We analysed data recorded during occupational health visits of 125,070 Spanish civil servants aged 18-65 years with a de-indexed glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated with the chronic-kidney-disease-epidemiological (CKD-EPI) equation (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) ≥60 mL/min. Subjects were categorised according to fasting plasma glucose levels <100 mg/dL (normoglycemia), ≥100 and ≤ 125 mg/dL (prediabetes), or ≥126 mg/dL and/or antidiabetic treatment (T2DM). The association between MAFLD and glomerular hyperfiltration, defined as a de-indexed eGFR above the age- and gender-specific 95th percentile, was assessed by multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: In the whole study group, MAFLD prevalence averaged 19.3%. The prevalence progressively increased from 14.7% to 33.2% and to 48.9% in subjects with normoglycemia, prediabetes and T2DM, respectively (p < 0.001 for trend). Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for the association between MAFLD and hyperfiltration was 9.06 (8.53-9.62) in the study group considered as a whole, and 8.60 (8.03-9.21), 9.52 (8.11-11.18) and 8.31 (6.70-10.30) in subjects with normoglycemia, prediabetes and T2DM considered separately. In stratified analyses, MAFLD amplified age-dependent eGFR decline in all groups (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD prevalence increases across the glycaemic spectrum. MAFLD is significantly associated with hyperfiltration and amplifies the age-related eGFR decline.

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