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Advances in preclinical approaches for intravesical therapy of bladder cancer.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to explore new strategies to treat bladder cancer. This article addresses challenges and opportunities in intravesical therapy of bladder cancer.

RECENT FINDINGS: The review examines the latest advances in the development of preclinical approaches for intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. It discusses strategies to improve drug delivery efficiency by using synthesized diverse carriers. Immunotherapy with protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride has been shown to be more effective than intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. Novel drug delivery systems such the urinary drug-disposing strategy and intravesical nanoparticle formulations improve the drug delivery efficiency while minimizing adverse reactions. Innovative imaging techniques using near-infrared fluorescence probes and multifunctional nano-transformers enable real-time detection and targeted therapy in bladder cancer treatment.

SUMMARY: Treatment of bladder cancer is clinically challenging. However, recent progress in drug delivery technologies shows promise. Optimizing these technologies helps improve patient outcomes, and facilitates clinical translation of different treatment modalities.

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