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Management and Long-Term Outcomes of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DReSS) in Children: A Scoping Review.

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DReSS) is known to cause mortality and long-term sequelae in the pediatric population, however there are no established clinical practice guidelines for the management of pediatric DReSS. We conducted a scoping review, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, to summarize the currently available data on treatment, mortality, and long-term sequelae of DReSS in children (aged 0-18 years). Data from 644 individuals revealed that various treatment strategies are being used in the management of pediatric DReSS, and strategies were often used in combination. The diversity in treatment approaches cannot be solely attributed to age or disease severity and reflects the lack of evidence-based management guidelines for DReSS. Children are also at risk of developing autoimmune sequelae following DReSS, most commonly thyroid disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus. We found that the eventual development of autoimmune disease was more often associated with DReSS caused by antibiotics, especially minocycline and sulfamethoxazole, in comparison with individuals who did not develop sequelae. In this study, we identify strengths and weaknesses in the currently available literature and highlight that future prospective studies with structured and long-term follow-up of children with DReSS are needed to better understand potential risk factors for mortality and development of sequelae after DReSS.

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