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The many roles of sulfur in the fungal-host interaction.

Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for life, and consequently, all living organisms must acquire it from external sources to thrive and grow. Sulfur is a constituent of a multitude of crucial molecules, such as the S-containing proteinogenic amino acids cysteine and methionine; cofactors and prosthetic groups, such as coenzyme-A and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters; and other essential organic molecules, such as glutathione or S-adenosylmethionine. Additionally, sulfur in cysteine thiols is an active redox group that plays paramount roles in protein stability, enzyme catalysis, and redox homeostasis. Furthermore, H2 S is gaining more attention as a crucial signaling molecule that influences metabolism and physiological functions. Given its importance, it is not surprising that sulfur plays key roles in the host-pathogen interaction. However, in contrast to its well-recognized involvement in the plant-pathogen interaction, the specific contributions of sulfur to the human-fungal interaction are much less understood. In this short review, I highlight some of the most important known mechanisms and propose directions for further research.

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