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Prostate Risk and Monitoring During Testosterone Replacement Therapy.

Men with hypogonadism have reduced risk of prostate cancer mortality; whether testosterone treatment increases the risk of prostate safety events in men with hypogonadism remains controversial. Several studies including four larger randomized trials-the Testosterone Trials, TEstosterone and Atherosclerosis Progression in Aging Men (TEAAM) Trial, Testosterone for Diabetes Mellitus Trial, and Testosterone Replacement therapy for Assessment of long-term Vascular Events and efficacy ResponSE in hypogonadal men (TRAVERSE) Trial-treated men with testosterone or placebo for one year or longer and reported prospectively-ascertained prostate safety data. The TRAVERSE Trial, because of its large size, longer duration, and adjudication of prostate events, has provided comprehensive data on the risk of adverse prostate events during TRT. Among men with hypogonadism, carefully screened to exclude those at high risk of prostate cancer, the incidences of high-grade or any prostate cancer, acute urinary retention, surgical procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate biopsy, or new pharmacologic therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms were low and did not differ between the testosterone and placebo groups. Testosterone did not worsen lower urinary tract symptoms. TRT was associated with a greater increase in PSA than placebo in the first year of treatment. Conclusions: Testosterone treatment of men with hypogonadism, screened to exclude those at high risk of prostate cancer, is associated with low risk of adverse prostate events. Baseline evaluation of prostate cancer risk and a standardized monitoring plan can minimize the risk of unnecessary prostate biopsy while enabling the detection of high-grade prostate cancers in men receiving TRT.

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