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Evaluating cardiovascular risk in metabolic steatosis with precision medicine non-invasive approaches: insights from a cohort study.

Metabolic associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is the most common liver condition. It is associated with increased liver-related morbidity and mortality, and also with high risk of cardiovascular events (CVD), representing itself an independent risk factor for it. This makes MASLD a presentation of high interest for internal medicine, also because of its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is crucial to assess its risks in a noninvasive way. With the aim of finding specific risk profiles for CVD development in MASLD by performing a noninvasive assessment of: (1) preclinical signs of endothelial dysfunction (ED); (2) clinical assessment of CVD risk by Framingham Heart Risk Score (FHRs); (3) genomic characterization of MASLD associated polymorphisms; (4) specific untargeted metabolomic profiles, we enrolled 466 MASLD patients non-invasively classified in 4 group of liver fibrosis severity (group-A: low-fibrosis risk, group-B: high-fibrosis risk, group-C: MASLD-cirrhosis, group-D: MASLD-HCC) and 73 healthy controls. FHRs was similar in controls and low-fibrosis group and significantly higher in high-fibrosis patients, cirrhosis, and HCC, increasing among classes. At a multivariable regression, FHRs was associated with liver disease severity and diabetes. 38.2% of patients had altered EndoPAT, resembling ED. Patients with high FHRs (> 40%) and ED had different metabolomics compared to those without ED. Our study reveals that a deep, non-invasive characterization of MASLD patients through precision medicine approaches (untargeted metabolomics, SNPs, ED assessment) was able to show a peculiar pattern in MASLD patients with increased CVD risk, mostly correlated with liver disease severity.

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