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Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Parameters and Risk of Heart Failure: A Multicohort Analysis.

JACC. Heart Failure 2024 April 31
BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is commonly characterized by its cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) and inverse association with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the association of HDL particle concentration (HDL-P), HDL particle size (HDL-size), HDL-C, and cholesterol content per particle (HDL-C/HDL-P) with risk of overall heart failure (HF) and subtypes.

METHODS: Participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study, Dallas Heart Study, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease studies without HF history were included. Associations of HDL-P, HDL-size, HDL-C, and HDL-C/HDL-P with risk of overall HF, HF with reduced and preserved ejection fraction were assessed using adjusted Cox models.

RESULTS: Among 16,925 participants (53.5% women; 21.8% Black), there were 612 incident HF events (3.6%) (HF with reduced ejection fraction, 309 [50.5%]; HF preserved ejection fraction, 303 [49.5%]) over median follow-up of 11.4 years. In adjusted models, higher HDL-P was significantly associated with lower HF risk (HR of highest vs lowest tertile of HDL-P: 0.76 [95% CI: 0.62-0.93]). Larger HDL-size was significantly associated with higher overall HF risk (HR of largest vs smallest tertile of HDL-size: 1.27 [95% CI: 1.03-1.58]). HF risk associated with HDL-P and HDL-size was similar for HF subtypes. In adjusted analyses, there was no significant association between HDL-C and HF risk. Higher HDL-C/HDL-P was significantly associated with higher overall HF risk (HR of highest vs lowest tertile of HDL-C/HDL-P: 1.29 [95% CI: 1.04-1.60]).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher HDL-P was associated with a lower risk of HF. In contrast, larger HDL-size was associated with higher risk of HF and there was no significant association observed between HDL-C and HF risk after accounting for cardiovascular risk factors.

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