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Deep-Learning Model Prediction of Radiation Pneumonitis Using Pretreatment Chest Computed Tomography and Clinical Factors.

Objectives: This study aimed to build a comprehensive deep-learning model for the prediction of radiation pneumonitis using chest computed tomography (CT), clinical, dosimetric, and laboratory data. Introduction: Radiation therapy is an effective tool for treating patients with lung cancer. Despite its effectiveness, the risk of radiation pneumonitis limits its application. Although several studies have demonstrated models to predict radiation pneumonitis, no reliable model has been developed yet. Herein, we developed prediction models using pretreatment chest CT and various clinical data to assess the likelihood of radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 3-dimensional (3D) lung volume data from chest CT scans and 27 features including dosimetric, clinical, and laboratory data from 548 patients who were treated at our institution between 2010 and 2021. We developed a neural network, named MergeNet, which processes lung 3D CT, clinical, dosimetric, and laboratory data. The MergeNet integrates a convolutional neural network with subsequent fully connected layers. A support vector machine (SVM) and light gradient boosting machine (LGBM) model were also implemented for comparison. For comparison, the convolution-only neural network was implemented as well. Three-dimensional Resnet-10 network and 4-fold cross-validation were used. Results: Classification performance was quantified by using the area under the receiver operative characteristic curve (AUC) metrics. MergeNet showed the AUC of 0.689. SVM, LGBM, and convolution-only networks showed AUCs of 0.525, 0.541, and 0.550, respectively. Application of DeLong test to pairs of receiver operating characteristic curves respectively yielded P values of .001 for the MergeNet-SVM pair and 0.001 for the MergeNet-LGBM pair. Conclusion: The MergeNet model, which incorporates chest CT, clinical, dosimetric, and laboratory data, demonstrated superior performance compared to other models. However, since its prediction performance has not yet reached an efficient level for clinical application, further research is required. Contribution: This study showed that MergeNet may be an effective means to predict radiation pneumonitis. Various predictive factors can be used together for the radiation pneumonitis prediction task via the MergeNet.

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