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Cardiovascular Disease and Inpatient Complications in Turner Syndrome: A Propensity Score Analysis.

BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that occurs in female individuals and is characterized by the absence of 1 of the X chromosomes. This study examined the risk of cardiovascular disease and inpatient clinical outcomes in patients with Turner syndrome.

METHODS: Data were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2016 database. Propensity score analysis was used to match women with Turner syndrome and women without Turner syndrome admitted to a hospital in the same year to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease and inpatient clinical outcomes in patients with Turner syndrome.

RESULTS: After 1:1 matching, 710 women with Turner syndrome and 710 women without Turner syndrome were included in the final analysis. Compared with women without Turner syndrome, women with Turner syndrome were more likely to have a bicuspid aortic valve (9.4% vs 0.01%; P < .01), coarctation of the aorta (5.8% vs 0.3%; P < .01), atrial septal defect (6.1% vs 0.8%; P < .01), and patent ductus arteriosus (4.6% vs 0.6%; P < .01). Patients with Turner syndrome were more likely to have an aortic aneurysm (odds ratio [OR], 2.46 [95% CI, 1.02-5.98]; P = .046), ischemic heart disease (OR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.10-2.5]; P = .02), heart failure (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.99-4.99]; P < .01), and atrial fibrillation or flutter (OR, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.42-4.34]; P < .01). Patients with Turner syndrome were more likely to have pulmonary arterial hypertension (OR, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.08-4.14]; P = .03) and acute kidney injury (OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.06-2.42]; P = .03) and to require mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.04-2.68]; P = .04).

CONCLUSION: Turner syndrome is associated with an increased rate of cardiovascular disease and inpatient complications. These findings suggest that patients with Turner syndrome should be screened and monitored closely for cardiovascular disease and inpatient complications.

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