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Characterization, biogenesis model, and current bioinformatics of human extrachromosomal circular DNA.

Human extrachromosomal circular DNA, or eccDNA, has been the topic of extensive investigation in the last decade due to its prominent regulatory role in the development of disorders including cancer. With the rapid advancement of experimental, sequencing and computational technology, millions of eccDNA records are now accessible. Unfortunately, the literature and databases only provide snippets of this information, preventing us from fully understanding eccDNAs. Researchers frequently struggle with the process of selecting algorithms and tools to examine eccDNAs of interest. To explain the underlying formation mechanisms of the five basic classes of eccDNAs, we categorized their characteristics and functions and summarized eight biogenesis theories. Most significantly, we created a clear procedure to help in the selection of suitable techniques and tools and thoroughly examined the most recent experimental and bioinformatics methodologies and data resources for identifying, measuring and analyzing eccDNA sequences. In conclusion, we highlighted the current obstacles and prospective paths for eccDNA research, specifically discussing their probable uses in molecular diagnostics and clinical prediction, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of novel computational strategies.

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