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Exploring Sociodemographic Factors in Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in a Northern California Patient Population.

Permanente Journal 2024 May 16
BACKGROUND: Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is a subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that has previously been associated with younger age and Black patients. However, the role of demographic and socioeconomic factors in AFRS severity remains to be fully elucidated.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with incidence of AFRS, as well as with disease severity in Northern California.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients with AFRS and CRS from 2010 to 2019. AFRS was determined by the Bent and Kuhn criteria, and severity was assessed by radiographic evidence of cranioorbital invasion and other clinical parameters. Chi-square and t-test were used to assess demographic and socioeconomic differences between AFRS and CRS cohorts, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for severe AFRS.

RESULTS: Black patients represented 26.2% (55/210 patients) of the AFRS group and 4.9% (842/17,300 patients) of the CRS group, with pairwise comparison of race/ethnicity categories showing that the AFRS group had significantly higher proportions of Black race/ethnicity compared with other race/ethnicities (p < 0.01). AFRS and CRS groups differed significantly by age, with mean ages of 48.7 and 51.0 years, respectively (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in gender, Medicaid status, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status measures. Multivariate logistic regression showed that Black patients had higher odds of having severe AFRS (adjusted odds ratio = 2.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.18-4.45).

CONCLUSION: AFRS has a unique predilection for Black patients, and severe disease is also more likely in this population.

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