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The Population-Based Hungarian Twin Registry: An Update.

Between 2006 and 2021, the Hungarian Twin Registry (HTR) operated a volunteer twin registry of all age groups (50% monozygotic [MZ], 50% dizygotic [DZ], 70% female, average age 34 ± 22 years), including 1044 twin pairs, 24 triplets and one quadruplet set. In 2021, the HTR transformed from a volunteer registry into a population-based one, and it was established in the Medical Imaging Centre of Semmelweis University in Budapest. Semmelweis University's innovation fund supported the development of information technology, a phone bank and voicemail infrastructure, administrative materials, and a new website was established where twins and their relatives (parent, foster parent or caregiver) can register. The HTR's biobank was also established: 157,751 individuals with a likely twin-sibling living in Hungary (77,042 twins, 1194 triplets, 20 quadruplets, and one quintuplet) were contacted between February and March of 2021 via sealed letters. Until November 20, 2022, 12,001 twin individuals and their parents or guardians (6724 adult twins, 3009 parents/guardians and 5277 minor twins) registered, mostly online. Based on simple self-reports, 37.6% of the registered adults were MZ twins and 56.8% were DZ; 1.12% were triplets and 4.5% were unidentified. Of the registered children, 22.3% were MZ, 72.7% were DZ, 1.93% were triplets, and 3.05% were unidentified. Of the registered twins, 59.9% were female (including both the adult and minor twins). The registration questionnaire consists of eight parts, including socio-demographic and anthropometric data, smoking habits and medical questions (diseases, operations, therapies). Hungary's twin registry has become the sole and largest population-based twin registry in Central Eastern Europe. This new resource will facilitate performing world-class modern genetic research.

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