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Milrinone in persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn: a scoping review.

Pediatric Research 2024 May 15
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a common neonatal condition in newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). PPHN has still a high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is the first line vasodilator therapy for PPHN in high income countries. In low-to-middle income countries (LMICs), availability of iNO remains scarce and expensive. The purpose of this scoping review was to evaluate the current existing literature for milrinone therapy in PPHN and to identify the knowledge gaps in milrinone use in infants with PPHN. The available evidence for milrinone remains limited both as monotherapy and as an adjuvant to iNO. The studies were heterogeneous, conducted in different settings, with different populations and more importantly the endpoints of these trials were short-term outcomes such as changes in oxygenation and blood pressure. Large prospective studies investigating long-term outcomes, mortality, and the need for Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are warranted. Randomized controlled trials with milrinone as monotherapy are needed in LMICs where iNO availability remains limited. IMPACT: Milrinone has a potential role in the management of PPHN both as an adjuvant to iNO as well as a monotherapy. This scoping review identified the problems existing in the published literature on milrinone and the barriers to generalization of these results. Multi-centre randomized controlled trials on milrinone, especially involving centers from low- and middle-income countries are needed, where it can be evaluated as first-line pulmonary vasodilator therapy.

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