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Trastuzumab deruxtecan in HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer: exploratory biomarker analysis of the randomized, phase 2 DESTINY-Gastric01 trial.

Nature Medicine 2024 May 15
Trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd) showed statistically significant clinical improvement in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+ ) gastric cancer in the DESTINY-Gastric01 trial. Exploratory results from DESTINY-Gastric01 suggested a potential benefit in patients with HER2-low gastric cancer. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in HER2 expression or gene alteration, an inherent characteristic of gastric cancer tumors, presents a challenge in identifying patients who may respond to T-DXd. Specific biomarkers related to therapeutic response have not been explored extensively. Exploratory analyses were conducted to assess baseline HER2-associated biomarkers in circulating tumor DNA and tissue samples, and to investigate mechanisms of resistance to T-DXd. Baseline HER2-associated biomarkers were correlated with objective response rate (ORR) in the primary cohort of patients with HER2+ gastric cancer. The primary cohort had 64% concordance between HER2 positivity and HER2 (ERBB2) plasma gene amplification. Other key driver gene amplifications, specifically MET, EGFR and FGFR2, in circulating tumor DNA were associated with numerically lower ORR. Among 12 patients with HER2 gain-of-function mutations, ORR was 58.3% (7 of 12). ORR was consistent regardless of timing of immunohistochemistry sample collection. Further investigations are required in larger studies.

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