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Review
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Targeting respiratory microbiomes in COPD and bronchiectasis.

INTRODUCTION: This review summarizes our current understanding of the respiratory microbiome in COPD and Bronchiectasis. We explore the interplay between microbial communities, host immune responses, disease pathology and treatment outcomes.

AREAS COVERED: We detail the dynamics of the airway microbiome, its influence in chronic respiratory diseases, and analytical challenges. Relevant articles from PubMed and Medline searches between Jan 2010 and March 2024 were retrieved and summarized. The review examines clinical correlations of the microbiome in COPD and bronchiectasis, assessing how current therapies impact upon it. The potential of emerging immunotherapies, anti-inflammatories and antimicrobial strategies are discussed, with focus on the pivotal role of commensal taxa in maintaining respiratory health and the promising avenue of microbiome remodeling for disease management.

EXPERT OPINION: Given the heterogeneity in microbiome composition and its pivotal role in disease development and progression, a shift toward microbiome-directed therapeutics is appealing. This transition, from traditional 'pathogen-centric' diagnostic and treatment modalities to those acknowledging the microbiome, can be enabled by evolving cross-disciplinary platforms which have the potential to accelerate microbiome-based interventions into routine clinical practice. Bridging the gap between comprehensive microbiome analysis and clinical application, however, remains challenging, necessitating continued innovation in research, diagnostics, trials and therapeutic development pipelines.

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