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Dupilumab Safety and Efficacy up to 1 Year in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years with Atopic Dermatitis: Results from a Phase 3 Open-Label Extension Study.

BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) often experience a high disease burden and have a high risk of persistent disease. Standard-of-care immunosuppressive systemic treatments have been used off-label for AD in pediatric patients despite concerns for suboptimal safety with continuous use and risk of relapse upon discontinuation. The biologic agent dupilumab is the first systemic treatment approved for moderate-to-severe AD in children as young as 6 months. Long-term safety and efficacy data in this patient population are needed to inform continuous AD management.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of dupilumab treatment up to 1 year in an open-label extension (OLE) study [LIBERTY AD PED-OLE (NCT02612454)] in children aged 6 months to 5 years with moderate-to-severe AD who previously participated in the 16-week, double-blind, phase 3 LIBERTY AD PRESCHOOL trial (NCT03346434 part B; parent study) and were subsequently enrolled in PED-OLE.

METHODS: In PED-OLE, patients received dupilumab every 4 weeks according to a weight-tiered regimen (body weight ≥ 5 kg to < 15 kg: 200 mg; ≥ 15 kg to < 30 kg: 300 mg).

RESULTS: Data for 142 patients were analyzed, 60 of whom had completed the 52-week visit at time of database lock. Mean age at baseline was 4.1 y [SD, 1.13; range, 1.0-5.9 years]. A majority (78.2%) of patients reported ≥ 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE), most of which were mild or moderate and transient. The most frequently reported TEAEs were nasopharyngitis (19.7%), cough (15.5%), and pyrexia (14.1%). One TEAE led to treatment discontinuation (severe urticaria, which resolved in 1 day). By week 52, 36.2% of patients had achieved an Investigator's Global Assessment score of 0/1 (clear/almost clear skin), and 96.6%, 79.3%, and 58.6% had at least 50%, 75%, or 90% improvement, respectively, in Eczema Area and Severity Index scores.

CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with results seen in adults, adolescents, and older children (aged 6-11 years), treatment with dupilumab for up to 1 year in children aged 6 months to 5 years with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe AD demonstrated an acceptable long-term safety profile and sustained efficacy. These results support the long-term continuous use of dupilumab in this patient population.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02612454 and NCT03346434 (part B).

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