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Estimation of the rupture point of the craniovertebral junction intradural arteriovenous fistula with vessel wall magnetic resonance image and its pathological findings: A case report.

BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the craniocervical junction (CCJ) and intradural AVFs are often associated with aneurysms and varics, and it is sometimes difficult to identify the ruptured point on radiological images. We report a case in which vessel wall magnetic resonance image (VW-MRI) was useful for identifying the ruptured point at the CCJ AVF.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 70-year-old man presented with a sudden onset of headache. He had Glasgow Coma Scale E4V5M6, world federation of neurosurgical societies (WFNS) Grade I. Fisher group 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus were found on head computed tomography. Cerebral angiography showed a spinal AVF at the C1 level of the cervical spine. Magnetic resonance image-enhanced motion sensitized driven equilibrium (MSDE-method showed an enhancing effect in part of the AVF draining vein, but the vascular architecture of this lesion was indeterminate. We performed continuous ventricular drainage for acute hydrocephalus and antihypertensive treatment. Cerebral angiography was performed 30days after the onset of the disease, and was revealed an aneurysmal structure in a portion of the AVF draining vein, which VW-MRI initially enhanced. On the 38th day after onset, he underwent direct surgery to occlude the AV fistula and dissect the aneurysmal structure. Histopathology showed that the aneurysmal structure was varices with lymphocytic infiltration, and hemosiderin deposition was observed near the varices.

CONCLUSION: Recently, VW-MRI has been reported to show an association between the enhancement of varices in dural AVF and rupture cases. VW-MRI, especially the enhanced MSDE method, may be useful in estimating the ruptured point in arteriovenous shunt disease.

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