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New CNS tumor classification: The importance in pediatric neurosurgical practice.

BACKGROUND: The management of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the pediatric population is crucial in neurosurgical practice. The World Health Organization (WHO) has evolved its classification of CNS tumors from the 19th century to the 5th edition, published in 2021, incorporating molecular advancements. This transition from morphology to molecular characterization is ongoing.

METHODS: This manuscript analyzes the modifications introduced in the 5th edition of WHO's CNS tumor classification, particularly focusing on pediatric tumor families. The paper integrates clinical, morphological, and molecular information, aiming to guide pediatric neurosurgeons in their daily practice and interdisciplinary discussions.

RESULTS: The 5th edition of the WHO classification introduces a hybrid taxonomy that incorporates both molecular and histological components. The terminology shifts from "entity" to "type" and "subtype," aiming to standardize terminology. Tumor grading experiences changes, integrating molecular biomarkers for prognosis. The concept of integrated layered diagnosis is emphasized, where molecular and histological information is combined systematically.

CONCLUSION: The 5th edition of the WHO CNS classification signifies a paradigm shift toward molecular characterization. The incorporation of molecular advances, the layered diagnostic approach, and the inclusion of clinical, morphological, and molecular information aim to provide comprehensive insights into pediatric CNS tumors. This classification offers valuable guidance for pediatric neurosurgeons, aiding in precise diagnosis and treatment planning for these complex neoplasms.

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