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A rare presentation of leiomyosarcoma metastasis to the cervical spine: A case report and a brief review.

BACKGROUND: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare malignancy that originates from smooth muscle. The most common sites of metastases include the lungs, liver, kidney, and skin. Notably, metastases of LMS to the central nervous system/or spine are extremely rare. When a cervical spinal LMS lesion was encountered, the patient successfully underwent gross total tumor resection with negative margins.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 63-year-old female had undergone an anterior cervical C5-C7 diskectomy and fusion 18 years ago and resection of a retroperitoneal LMS 3 years ago. She newly presented with right-sided numbness and pain of 2 months duration that correlated with a focal right-sided C5-level hemiparesis (i.e., 4/5 motor strength). When the cervical magnetic resonance demonstrated a right-sided C5 intralaminar mass with extension into the C5-C6 foramen, she underwent posterior tumor resection; pathologically, this proved to be an LMS metastasis. Respectively, 1- and six months postoperatively, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans showed no tumor recurrence; she tolerated adjuvant oncological treatment accompanied by physical therapy. However, in one postoperative year, the lesion recurred, and she is presently under consideration for additional surgical management.

CONCLUSION: Gross total surgical resection is the first line of treatment for patients with metastatic LMS. Here, a patient with a C5 laminar/C5-C6 foraminal bony LMS metastasis underwent posterior tumor resection accompanied by adjuvant oncological treatment but exhibited disease recurrence within one postoperative year.

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