Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
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Long-term sustained effects of the Look AHEAD lifestyle intervention on body composition among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Obesity 2024 June
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test whether there are sustained effects of the Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), versus diabetes support and education (DSE), on weight and body composition 12 to 16 years after randomization.

METHODS: Participants were a subset of enrollees in the Look AHEAD dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry substudy who completed the final visit, composed of men (DSE = 99; ILI = 94) and women (DSE = 134; ILI = 135) with type 2 diabetes and mean (SD) age 57.2 (6.4) years and BMI 34.9 (5.1) kg/m2 at randomization. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measured total and regional fat and lean masses at randomization, at Years 1, 4, and 8, and at the final visit. Linear mixed-effects regressions were applied with adjustment for group, clinic, sex, age, race/ethnicity, and baseline body composition.

RESULTS: Weight and most body compartments were reduced by 2% to 8% (and BMI 4%) in ILI versus DSE in men but not women. ILI-induced loss of lean tissue did not show a lower percent lean mass versus DSE at 16 years after randomization.

CONCLUSION: ILI-related changes in weight, fat, and lean mass were detectable 12 to 16 years after randomization in men but, for unknown reasons, not in women. There was no evidence that the intervention led to a disproportionate loss of lean mass by the end of the study.

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