Journal Article
Multicenter Study
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Preoperative CT-based radiomic prognostic index to predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a multicenter study.

BACKGROUND: The value of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. A subset of patients may benefit from PORT. We aimed to identify patients with NSCLC who could benefit from PORT.

METHODS: Patients from cohorts 1 and 2 with pathological Tany N2 M0 NSCLC were included, as well as patients with non-metastatic NSCLC from cohorts 3 to 6. The radiomic prognostic index (RPI) was developed using radiomic texture features extracted from the primary lung nodule in preoperative chest CT scans in cohort 1 and validated in other cohorts. We employed a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-Cox regularisation model for data dimension reduction, feature selection, and the construction of the RPI. We created a lymph-radiomic prognostic index (LRPI) by combining RPI and positive lymph node number (PLN). We compared the outcomes of patients who received PORT against those who did not in the subgroups determined by the LRPI.

RESULTS: In total, 228, 1003, 144, 422, 19, and 21 patients were eligible in cohorts 1-6. RPI predicted overall survival (OS) in all six cohorts: cohort 1 (HR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.18-4.52), cohort 2 (HR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.26-2.14), cohort 3 (HR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.45-4.3), cohort 4 (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.52), cohort 5 (HR = 2.56, 95% CI: 0.73-9.02), cohort 6 (HR = 2.30, 95% CI: 0.53-10.03). LRPI predicted OS (C-index: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.75) better than the pT stage (C-index: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50-0.63), pT + PLN (C-index: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.46-0.70), and RPI (C-index: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.54-0.75). The LRPI was used to categorize individuals into three risk groups; patients in the moderate-risk group benefited from PORT (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.91; p = 0.02), while patients in the low-risk and high-risk groups did not.

CONCLUSIONS: We developed preoperative CT-based radiomic and lymph-radiomic prognostic indexes capable of predicting OS and the benefits of PORT for patients with NSCLC.

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