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High AMH levels are associated with gestational hypertension in patients with PCOS who underwent IVF/ICSI-ET.

BACKGROUND: Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a higher risk of obstetric complications. The association between anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and gestational hypertension in these patients is poorly understood.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between serum AMH levels and gestational hypertension in patients with PCOS undergoing fresh embryo transfer.

METHODS: This retrospective study included 649 patients with PCOS who had singleton live births after undergoing fresh embryo transfers. The association of AMH with gestational hypertension in these patients was estimated before and after propensity score matching (PSM).

RESULTS: Patients with gestational hypertension had higher AMH levels than those without gestational hypertension. In single-factor logistic regression, the odds of gestational hypertension increased by 11.7% and 18.6% for every 1 ng/mL increase in AMH before and after adjusting for confounding factors [OR 1.117, 95% CI(1.025, 1.217), P = 0.012; adjusted OR 1.186, 95% CI(1.061, 1.327), adjusted P = 0.003], respectively. The odds of gestational hypertension increased more than 100% [adjusted OR 2.635, 95% CI(1.132, 6.137), adjusted P = 0.025] in the 75th percentile group (>9.30 ng/ml) and more than thrice [adjusted OR 4.75, 95% CI(1.672, 13.495), adjusted P = 0.003] in the 90th percentile group (>12.31 ng/ml) as compared to the without-gestational hypertension group. AMH level was still associated with gestational hypertension after PSM. The area under the curve of AMH predicting gestational hypertension was 0.654 [95% CI (0.532, 0.776), P = 0.011] with an optimal cutoff value of 11.975 ng/mL.

CONCLUSIONS: High serum AMH level pre-pregnancy (especially at levels > 9.30 ng/mL) indicates a high odds of gestational hypertension in patients with PCOS undergoing fresh embryo transfer.

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