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The cementless taper wedge vs. fit-and-fill stem in primary total hip arthroplasty: risk of stem-related complication differs across Dorr types.

INTRODUCTION: The choice between a cementless taper wedge stem and a fit-and-fill stem in total Hip arthroplasty (THA) for various proximal femoral morphological types has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aimed to compare the risk of stem-related complications between these two stem types in Dorr type A, B, and C femurs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2015 through April 2021, we retrospectively reviewed 1995 cementless THA procedures. We stratified all procedures into three groups: Dorr type A (N = 360, 18.0%), B (N = 1489, 74.7%) and C (N = 146, 7.3%). The primary outcome domain was stem-related complications, including stem subsidence ≥ 3 mm, intraoperative fracture, periprosthetic fracture and aseptic stem loosening. We performed multivariate regression analysis to compare the risk of stem-related complication between the two stem types. Other factors included age, sex, body mass index, diagnosis, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index, stem alignment and canal fill ratio.

RESULTS: The incidence of stem-related complications in the taper wedge and fit-and-fill stem groups was 4.4% (N = 15) and 6.5% (N = 107), respectively. Fit-and-fill stems showed an increased risk of stem-related complications (aOR: 9.903, 95% CI: 1.567-62.597) only in Dorr type C femurs. No significant difference in risk was observed in Dorr type A and B femurs. Furthermore, the canal fill ratio at the lesser trochanter, 2 cm and 7 cm below the lesser trochanter, did not exhibit an association with stem-related complications in any Dorr type.

CONCLUSIONS: Concerning the risk of stem-related complications, the taper wedge stem was a better choice in Dorr type C femurs. However, there was no difference in risk between the taper wedge stem and fit-and-fill stem in Dorr type A and B femurs.

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