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The New Challenge of Obesity - Obesity-Associated Nephropathy.

In recent years, obesity has become one of the major diseases that affect human health and consume human health resources, especially when it causes comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. Many studies have demonstrated that obesity is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease and can exacerbate the progression of end-stage renal disease. This review described the mechanisms associated with the development of obesity-associated nephropathy and the current relevant therapeutic modalities, with the aim of finding new therapeutic targets for obesity-associated nephropathy. The mechanisms of obesity-induced renal injury include, in addition to the traditional alterations in renal hemodynamics, the involvement of various mechanisms such as macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue, alterations in adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), and ectopic deposition of lipids. At present, there is no "point-to-point" treatment for obesity-induced kidney injury. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and bariatric surgery described in this review can reduce urinary protein to varying degrees and delay the progression of kidney disease. In addition, recent studies on the therapeutic effects of intestinal flora on obesity may reduce the incidence of obesity-related kidney disease from the perspective of primary prevention. Both of these interventions have their own advantages and disadvantages, so the continuous search for the mechanism of obesity-induced related kidney disease will be extremely helpful for the future treatment of obesity-related kidney disease.

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