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Difficult endotracheal intubation in a patient with progressed tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica: A case report.

Tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica is a rare condition involving large airways with multiple bone and cartilage nodules in the tracheobronchial submucosa. This can cause tracheal stenosis, leading to difficulty in endotracheal intubation. A 79-year-old female patient, who had a history of successful endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia 8 years prior, was scheduled for abdominal surgery. Preoperative chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy revealed slight progression of tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica. Attempts to intubate with a smaller endotracheal tube failed; even the smaller endotracheal tube could barely pass. Mechanical ventilation was successfully administered and the surgery was completed without complications. The use of a smaller endotracheal tube may be beneficial for managing difficult airways in patients with tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica. Chest CT and bronchoscopic examination may be beneficial for evaluating the airway and determining the most appropriate airway management strategy. However, relying solely on these measures may lead to unexpected challenges because there is no established method to evaluate airway in patient with tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica. It is crucial for anesthesiologists to be aware of the potential existence of rare conditions such as tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica and be prepared to handle anticipated or unanticipated difficult airway management.

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