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The effects of ketogenic diet on brain gene expressions in type 2 diabetes background.

Neuroscience 2024 May 10
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor of a number of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Ketogenic diet (KD) has significant beneficial effects on glycemic control and may act effectively against NDDs, but the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects of KD on gene expressions in the brains of T2DM model mice. Male db/db mice at the age of 9 weeks were fed with KD or normal diet to the age of 6 months, and the whole brains were subjected to mRNA-seq analysis for differentially expressed genes. KD significantly lowered fasting glucose and body weights in db/db mice (P<0.05), and the expression of 189 genes in the brain were significantly changed (P<0.05, |log2|>1). Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes upon KD are involved in inflammatory responses and the functions of biosynthesis. In inflammatory responses, NF-κB signaling pathway, viral protein interaction with cytokine and cytokine receptor, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways were enriched, and in biosynthesis pathways, genes functioning in lipid and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism were enriched. Moreover, consistent with the gene set enrichment analysis results, proteasomal activity measured biochemically were enhanced in KD-fed T2DM mice. These data may facilitate the understanding of how KD can be protective to the brain in T2DM background. KD could be a new strategy for the prevention of NDDs in T2DM patients.

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