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Clinical Characteristics and Fatality Risk Factors for Patients with Listeria monocytogenes Infection: A 12-Year Hospital-Based Study in Xi'an, China.

INTRODUCTION: Listeriosis is a severe food-borne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes infection. The data of listeriosis in Xi'an population are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical features and fatality risk factors for listeriosis in three tertiary-care hospitals in Xi'an, China METHODS: The characteristics of demographic data, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory indicators, cranial imaging examination, antibiotics therapeutic schemes, and clinical outcomes were collected between 2011 and 2023. Logistic regression analysis was performed.

RESULTS: Seventy-one etiologically confirmed listeriosis patients were enrolled, including 12 neonatal and 59 non-neonatal cases. The majority of neonatal listeriosis presented as preterm (50%) and fetal distress (75%). The main clinical manifestations of non-neonatal listeriosis included fever (88%), headache (32%), disorder of consciousness (25%), vomiting (17%), abdominal pain (12%), and convulsions (8%). The fatality rate in neonatal cases was higher than in non-neonatal listeriosis (42 vs. 17%). Although no deaths were reported in maternal listeriosis, only two of 23 patients had an uneventful obstetrical outcome. Five maternal listeriosis delivered culture-positive neonates, three of whom decreased within 1 week post-gestation due to severe complications. Twenty-eight cases were neurolisteriosis and 43 cases were bacteremia. Neurolisteriosis had a higher fatality rate compared with bacteremia listeriosis (36 vs. 12%). The main neuroradiological images were cerebral edema/hydrocephalus, intracranial infection, and cerebral hernia. Listeria monocytogenes showed extremely low resistance to ampicillin (two isolates) and penicillin (one isolate). The fatality risk factors were the involvement of the central nervous system, hyperbilirubinemia, and hyponatremia for all enrolled subjects. Hyperuricemia contributed to the elevation of fatality risk in non-neonatal listeriosis.

CONCLUSIONS: When the patients suffered with symptoms of fever and central nervous system infection, they should be alert to the possibility of listeriosis. Early administration of ampicillin- or penicillin-based therapy might be beneficial for recovery of listeriosis.

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