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Ten-Year Outcome of Recanalization or Medical Therapy for Concomitant Chronic Total Occlusion After Myocardial Infarction.

BACKGROUND: The EXPLORE (Evaluating Xience and Left Ventricular Function in PCI on Occlusions After STEMI) trial was the first and only randomized trial investigating chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) early after primary PCI for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, compared with medical therapy for the CTO. We performed a 10-year follow-up of EXPLORE to investigate long-term safety and clinical impact of CTO PCI after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, compared with no-CTO PCI.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In EXPLORE, 302 patients post-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction with concurrent CTO were randomized to CTO PCI within ≈1 week or no-CTO PCI. We performed an extended clinical follow-up for the primary end point of major adverse cardiac events, consisting of cardiovascular death, coronary artery bypass grafting, or myocardial infarction. Secondary end points included all-cause death, angina, and dyspnea. Median follow-up was 10 years (interquartile range, 8-11 years). The primary end point occurred in 25% of patients with CTO PCI and in 24% of patients with no-CTO PCI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 [95% CI, 0.70-1.76]). Cardiovascular mortality was higher in the CTO PCI group (HR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.10-2.50]), but all-cause death was similar (HR, 1.53 [95% CI, 0.93-2.50]). Dyspnea relief was more frequent after CTO PCI (83% versus 65%, P =0.005), with no significant difference in angina.

CONCLUSIONS: This 10-year follow-up of patients post-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction randomized to CTO PCI or no-CTO PCI demonstrated no clinical benefit of CTO PCI in major adverse cardiac events or overall mortality. However, CTO PCI was associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality compared with no-CTO PCI. Our long-term data support a careful weighing of effective symptom relief against an elevated cardiovascular mortality risk in CTO PCI decisions.

REGISTRATION: URL:; Unique identifier: NTR1108.

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