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Prevalence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Type 2 NSTEMI in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19.

BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence of type 2 non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (T2MI) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has been limited to single-center studies. Given that certain characteristics, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, have been associated with higher mortality in COVID-19 infections, we aimed to define the incidence of T2MI in a national cohort and identify pre-hospital patient characteristics associated with T2MI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the national American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Quality Improvement Registry, we performed a retrospective 4:1 matched (age, sex, race, and body mass index) analysis of controls versus cases with T2MI. We performed (1) conditional multivariable logistic regression to identify predictive pre-hospital patient characteristics of T2MI for patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and (2) stratified proportional hazards regression to investigate the association of T2MI with morbidity and mortality. From January 2020 through May 2021, there were 709 (2.2%) out of 32 015 patients with T2MI. Five hundred seventy-nine cases with T2MI were matched to 2171 controls (mean age 70; 43% female). Known coronary artery disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, payor source, and presenting heart rate were associated with higher odds of T2MI. Anti-hyperglycemic medication and anti-coagulation use before admission were associated with lower odds of T2MI. Those with T2MI had higher morbidity and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.13-1.74]; P =0.002).

CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, those with a T2MI compared with those without had higher morbidity and mortality. Outpatient anti-hyperglycemic and anti-coagulation use were the only pre-admission factors associated with reduced odds of T2MI.

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