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State-of-the-art and trends in fibroblast growth factor receptor-directed therapies in gastro-intestinal malignancies.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is timely and relevant due to the increasing recognition of the significance of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family in cancer biology. Understanding the role of FGFRs and their dysregulation in various cancers is crucial for developing targeted therapies and improving patient outcomes.

RECENT FINDINGS: The review highlights the importance of the FGFR family in cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, and survival. It discusses how abnormalities in FGFR2, including overexpression, gene amplification, and other genetic alterations, contribute to cancer progression, particularly in gastro-intestinal cancers. The paper also emphasizes the promising results of FGFR-targeted therapies, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors, in certain cancers such as cholangiocarcinoma and oesophagogastric cancers.

SUMMARY: The findings underscore the potential of FGFR-targeted therapies in treating cancers with FGFR dysregulation. However, the review also addresses the challenges associated with these therapies, including toxicities and mechanisms of resistance. Understanding these complexities is essential for optimizing the efficacy of FGFR-targeted treatments and improving patient outcomes in clinical practice and research efforts.

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