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State-of-the-art and upcoming trends in RAS-directed therapies in gastrointestinal malignancies.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Overall, the review underscores the evolving landscape of KRAS-targeted therapy and the potential for these approaches to improve outcomes for patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. It highlights the importance of ongoing research and clinical trials in advancing precision medicine strategies for KRAS-driven cancers. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the RAS signaling pathway and its significance in gastrointestinal malignancies.

RECENT FINDINGS: The introduction of KRAS inhibitor represents a significant advancement in the treatment landscape for KRAS-mutant cancers. In this review, we discuss upcoming trends in KRAS-targeted therapy, including the development of mutant-specific direct KRAS inhibitors like MRTX1133 and pan-RAS inhibitors such as RMC-6236. It also explores indirect RAS inhibitors targeting upstream and downstream components of the RAS pathway. Additionally, the review examines other upcoming strategies like combination therapies, such as CDK4/6 and ERK MAPK inhibitors, as well as adoptive cell therapy and cancer vaccines targeting KRAS-mutant cancers.

SUMMARY: Targeting RAS has become an important strategy in treating gastrointestinal cancer. These findings in this review underscore the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, integrating advances in molecular profiling, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical research to optimize treatment strategies for patients with KRAS-mutant gastrointestinal malignancies.

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