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Landolphia (P. Beauv.) genus: Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

The genus Landolphia (P. Beauv.) belongs to the Apocynaceae family with over 65 species distributed all over the tropical regions. This genus has a considerable number of documented medicinal, industrial, and ecologically beneficial effects. Therefore, this review is tailored towards the appraisal of the traditional significance, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the genus Landolphia . This will help researchers understand future research trends by bridging the gaps between documented literature and contemporary uses. Relevant information was obtained from selection of scientific databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Wiley. From documented literature, different parts of Landolphia have been used to improve fertility, lessen menstrual pain, boost sex libido, cure malaria and typhoid. Several classes of bioactive constituents such as terpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, steroids, fatty acids, saponins, phytosterol and phenylpropanoid, volatile compounds, lignans and coumarins have been isolated from this genus. These secondary metabolites could be responsible for the reported antimicrobial, antimalarial, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer activities exhibited by this genus. The leaves, flower, bark and root of this genus have a wide range of essential nutrients and antinutrients which are essential for normal growth and development in living organisms. Despite all findings indicating the economical, industrial and pharmacological activities of Landolphia species, secondary metabolites and pharmacological potency of Landolphia of this genus are not adequately documented. Therefore, bioassay-guided isolation on the Landolphia extracts with proven biological activities should be prioritised in order to isolate pharmacophores with unique structural frameworks.

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