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The asynchronous dynamic changes and interrelationships between leukocyte composition and inflammatory markers and potential clinical significance in the early stage and sepsis stage in severe burns.

Burns 2024 April 14
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic changes and interrelationships between leukocyte components and inflammatory markers in the early stages and sepsis stage in severe burns, and explore their potential clinical significance.

METHODS: This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study involving 107 patients with severe burns (the total body surface area of burn (TBSA) > 50%), in which, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, the ratio of the product of monocyte and lymphocyte count to neutrophil count (MLPN), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), capillary leakage index (CLI) and creatinine (Scr) were investigated.

RESULTS: Within one week after injury, the leukocyte components and MLPN showed a V-shaped change, with a peak immediately after injury and a trough on the 4th or 5th day after injury, while CRP showed a continuous upward trend, and the leukocyte compositions of all patients were negatively correlated with CRP values. The counts of leukocytes components and CRP values in deceased patients were higher than those in surviving patients within 2 days after injury. In the resorption stage, although no significant difference in lymphocyte and monocyte counts between surviving and deceased patients was found, the monocyte and lymphocyte counts in deceased patients were lower than those in surviving patients on the 5th to 7th day after injury, while neutrophils counts and CRP values remained higher than those in surviving patients. And the dynamic changes of MLPN were consistent with those of leukocyte compositions and opposite to those of PCT values. Moreover, MLPN were negatively correlated with CRP, CLI, and Scr values in the early stage of severe burns. In sepsis stage, as the condition worsened, the values of CRP, PCT and neutrophil counts continuously increased with varying degree, while lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and MLPN showed continuously decrease, but rebounded to increase before death. And the occurrence of the trough of monocyte counts was earlier than that of lymphocyte counts, a negative correlation between neutrophil counts and PCT values was found.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed the dynamic interrelationships between leucocyte components and inflammatory indicators in the early stages and sepsis stage in severe burns, reflecting the different weightings of inflammatory responses and immune dysfunction in different disease stages and its correlation with outcomes, which providing useful clinical information for dynamic immunomodulatory therapy. Moreover, dynamic monitoring of MLPN value can provide timely information for clinical evaluation.

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